The perspective of Personalized Medicine in the 21st century "the right medicine with the right dose at the right time to the right patient"

Personal medications

Throughout history, medical activities have largely been aimed at treating diseases. Even today, it is usually necessary to wait until the appearance of diseases and then try to treat them, and since the genetic and environmental factors that cause incurable diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s and diabetes are not fully understood, attempts to treat these diseases are often ambiguous. It is unpredictable and ineffective.

Personalized medicine[1] is a vast and growing field in medical care that is unique to each person in terms of clinical, genetic, genomic and environmental studies. Personalized medicine (PM) is currently a very new and exciting topic in the medical and healthcare industries. This is a concept that could transform medical interventions by providing effective treatment strategies tailored to an individual’s genomic, epigenomic and proteomic profile, while also being aware of the patient’s personal situation. The power of PM lies not only in treatment but also in prevention. The advent of precision medicine brings us closer to more precise, predictable and robust healthcare that is unique to each patient. Our growing understanding of genetics and genomics (how they affect health, disease, and drug treatment in each individual) is enabling doctors to prevent disease with more accurate diagnosis and prescribe safer drugs to provide more effective treatments for many. Provide from diseases.

Tailoring healthcare to each individual’s unique genetics is a promising idea for the future of medicine, known as personalized medicine or genomic medicine.

Benefits of personalized medicine

Medical approaches have historically been based on a “one-size-fits-all” policy and the use of similar treatments for those with similar illnesses. However, this view has many limitations because there is a wide range of factors influencing diseases, including genetics and environment, which influence the action of certain drugs. Medicines and treatments that are invented are tested on a large population and are prescribed using statistical averages. As a result, they work for some patients but not for many others, due to genetic differences in the population. On average, any prescription drug on the market works for only half of the people who take it.

Personalized therapy is overcoming the limitations of conventional medicine because it is based on each patient’s unique genetic makeup. There are many benefits to personalized medicine applications in healthcare:

This approach can be used to diagnose and treat diseases in a highly specific way, classifying them based on genetic variation rather than symptoms, allowing for treatments that are increasingly specific and effective. .

  • Genomic analysis can reveal genetic differences that can determine drug dosage, meaning patients can receive maximum drug effectiveness with minimal side effects.
  • Another use of personalized medicine is in disease prevention. Using sequencing technologies, it is possible to analyze disease susceptibility and focus on disease prevention and lifestyle modification.
  • Another advantage of personalized medicine is the reduction of prescription errors. Changing drugs with a trial and error approach leads to poorer results for patients, including adverse side effects, drug interactions, possible disease progression on the one hand, and on the other hand, delaying effective treatment and patient dissatisfaction, which means that patients have to use a wide range of drugs. to try to find a drug that is useful for them is one of the disadvantages of this trial and error approach. While analyzing the patient’s genome, more specific drugs can be prescribed, bringing more effective benefits and reducing the time needed to identify more effective drugs.
  • Improve disease diagnosis
  • Prevention of disease progression
  • Reduce time and cost
  • Developing new drugs is very expensive and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly willing to repurpose existing drugs with novel mechanisms. PM enables the optimization of treatment regimens and thus increases the utility of existing products.

Disadvantages of personalized medicine

Despite the many advantages of personalized medicine, as described earlier, there are also many disadvantages that could prevent personalized medicine from becoming the future of healthcare.

  • Security challenge: The main concern is the increasing use of personalized medicine, the protection of private information during the research and development stages, and the privacy of patients. For example, there are concerns that this information may not be used ethically, such as insurance companies that may not offer certain insurance policies to those with a genetic background.
  • Scientific challenge: Poor understanding of the molecular mechanism of certain diseases
    Diagnosing a life-altering disease with no treatment options is unethical, as awareness of these diseases can lead to psychological problems and can have a huge impact on the patient’s life.

Conclusion:

Overall, there are many ethical and legal issues that threaten the future of personalized therapies. However, it cannot be denied that personalized medicine offers significant short- and long-term benefits, especially for chronic and complex diseases. Therefore, it can be argued that overall, the future of personalized medical healthcare is bright.

PM is still in its infancy, however, the future of this approach has great potential in healthcare. In the future, using a personalized treatment approach, each person, on the day of birth, will receive their complete genomic information to be included in an individual medical record. This information allows doctors to implement more effective treatment methods based on the patient’s exposure to various diseases.[1] Personalized Medicine

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